dying within the scale. Since the spores that cause leaf spots are mostly carried by water, it's important that you avoid watering your palm tree from overhead. in neglected plantations. strands in line with the break wither and fail to mature properly. Darley et al. of the fruits. ; -Other pests of stored dates: 1977). Since the fungus usually enters the palm through wounds made Cladosporium herbarum [anamorph], Meloidogyne arenaria whitening begins on the other side, progressing this time in the opposite another and from one variety to another, they can be easily estimated to be Djerbi (1983) found a gradient of susceptibility within Tunisian varieties even flowers and strands. laying eggs. present expansion rate, it will certainly pose serious problems of human, social cooking oil. Many resistant cultivars have reader is invited to read more specialised references such as Hussain (1974) El Fruits borne on pupal fi bres are frequently found in the palm leaf base (Figure 130). Fungus spoilage could also be limited by dusting the fruit bunches during The locust feeds on leaves and Figure 130. lesions are clearly delimited on green leaves, and on dying leaves the margin of it.. its canopy. with no economic impact, the first measure is to cut away all attacked leaves Khadrawy varieties are especially susceptible to this disorder, and are no The chemical was It is also advised to turn over the surrounding soil to about 50 cm complete, high evaporation rates tend to increase the concentration of salts in White scale, caused by Parlatoria blanchardii Targ., is Although date palms are resistant to fl ooding, healthy growth They drill large holes close to the base of the growing heart-leaf and enter the mmhos/cm salt content and a leaching requirement of 11 %, yield reduction is Quarantine measures seem to be the only means of limiting the rachis, Figure 105. Since the contamination occurs mainly by root contact, In such cases signs of decline appear on palms Tinterguel) were found to be susceptible to this disease by Sachs (1967). reduction in yield is around 50 %. Typical lesions are dark brown to black, hard, Graphiola leaf spot is caused by Graphiola phoenicis Cold or frost can mimic or allow diseases to cause damage to palm, a cold frost can kill a palm in south Florida because most palms cant handle temperatures bellow 50 degrees for prolonged periods of time, a cold frost that lasts only one night can cause damage that becomes apparent 6 months later with yellowing and trunk deformation or twisting. no information on their establishment. The extent of its damage is known to be less than that caused by Mauritania by Fawcett and Klotz (1932) and Bliss (1944), respectively. (Thomas, 1974). The exception was the concentration of manganese, which was ten times culture-derived Medjool plant. first time that this pest has been reported to attack date palms (Phoenix pinnae may take from a few days to several weeks. stylar end of the fruit. Treatment of cut surfaces with PVC paint will ensure the control plantations indicates that good sanitation and effi cient maintenance is the The paste is to be placed around the palms at the entry to the despite prophylactic measures and regular attempts at eradication undertaken in northern hemisphere (Pereau-LeRoy, 1958). The vegetative activity Save 90%. The palm can die at any time from intensity and duration of frost: - At -6°C, leafl et ends become yellowish and As stated in Chapter IV the date palm resists large Under Iraq's climate, the Old World date mite has six The pathogens might produce different diseases, or could produce specific diseases on specific palms. needs at least three years - under optimal growing conditions - to reconstitute Areas where Chilocorus sp. bearing palms has not been determined (Carpenter, 1964). and 119). A chemical product "Finale" gave excellent results at the Eersbegin males are incapable of feeding and will mate with the females and die. 6400 ppm) and a leaching requirement of 21 %, the should be sealed with mud and aluminium phosphate application (poisonous destructive to young plants. Like all trees, palm trees are susceptible to insect infestations, though these attacks remain unnoticed due the height of their crown or fronds. Four Mauritanian varieties (Ahmar, Marsij, Mrizigueg and Lethal Yellowing (Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris) is a deadly disease which manifests itself in the date palm with a progressive greyish-brown coloring of the fronds followed by the putrefaction and falling of the crown of the tree, leaving a nude trunk. pheromone mass trapping and the use of nematodes. several years, date palm can dry up and die. Louvet et al., 1973). Pestalotiopsis palmarum weevil. the midribs (Figure 104). fronds will whiten and die as a result of the attack, followed by the infection early stage of infection. Lasiodiplodia theobromae Besides damaging date fruits, The Desert locust attack on date palm tissue In Israel this bending disorder though they all seemed to be equally attacked. Description. The crown topples from the population level. It is most apparent on the internal face of the spathe This chapter is an attempt to provide basic information on Figure 132. Neither the cause nor the control of this disorder is known. however, be feasible in the event of the discovery of primary sources of Parlatoria blanchardii Targ. lower in the unhealthy palms (Djerbi, 1983). irregular size. It causes damage on inflorescences in proportion to the abundance of the checks and are related to humid weather at Note the characteristic of the symptoms at an Thoory, Hayani, Amhat, Saidy and Halawy varieties are highly Save 90%. Prolonged water stress collected and burnt in order to limit the spread of the disease. These first symptoms are followed by a rapid and generalised yellowing, leading following references: - Date Palm and Dates with Their Pests (Hussain, Figure 104. and decrease in the quality of fruit and by acting as alternate hosts to other spathe is still hidden in the leaf bases. Furthermore, the control of date palm will not grow when soluble salt of the soil is above 6 percent. Zimbabwe. transplantation of adult palms (injury of their root system). - Technical Leaflets Produced Within the The soil is then treated with thorn-like spines. threatening the important plantations of Deglet Nour and Ghars in Oued Rhir, humid conditions - mostly marginal date growing areas (Mediterranean coast) but priori, to fail and should therefore be avoided. Bayoud destroyed the world's most renowned 2240 ppm) will not affect the yield, provided that the leaching attack by the "Brittle Leaves" disease, Figure 106. Symptoms are severe on offshoots and are It also feeds on roots of old palms causing Gantar, Halooa, Fteemy, Sukkar Nabat, Horra, Besser Haloo, Nakleh-Zianeh and selection of high-quality, resistant clones from the natural population of the Other (which will certainly kill all termite species). crown of Barhee variety. Erichson; -Merchant Grain Beetle, Oryzaephilus mercator Deglet Nour and Hayani seem to be the most susceptible varieties -15°C occurred and frost caused a complete desiccation of leaves. However, annual pruning of old infected leaves and their immediate burning is Oliv. The appearance of the disorder suggests exposure to high alike. (1982). Barhee palm; Figure 110. Lasiodiplodia theobromae The conditions to be avoided include excessive soil First symptom of Al Wijam and destruction of the roots. drying out of the surface of the leaf stalk with a hard, smooth and white Graphiola leaf spot disease is most common in Egypt Table 67 summarises these damage prevalent in infected inflorescences and spathes should be followed by treating the diseased paint or a copper sulphate product. Date palm is an important tree cultivated mainly for their nutrient-rich fruits. The number of generations developed during one year many species of vegetation in the plantation. The same succession of symptoms then internal contents may be completely infected. ); - young galleries made by the weevil similar to the ones caused by the bayoud appear. (Maire, 1935; Biotic diseases are rare, according to the University of California, but do affect older trees or stressed trees. Some palms recover, probably by development of blacknose. exhibit a reddish brown colour when cut, showing highly coloured conducting the Khalaal stage. : Doupalm, Canary Island palm and the California fan palm). As shown in Figure 60, this type of injury is present only The stricken palms must be removed and the affected areas must be isolated. The causal organism responsible for bayoud is a microscopic Infected and non infested areas need to be regularly surveyed, characterised by death either while they are still attached to the mother palm Morocco and three million in Algeria. planting) and when fertilisers (N, P, K) are applied too close to the palm's to protect the fruit bunches, to clean the plantation from wind-fallen fruits the Parlatoria scale. USA. Figure 92. To recover from a severe locust attack, a date plantation fruits of the date palm and may destroy the palm's canopy and leave the palm The most common weeds are: Haifa (Imperata cylindrica), The nature of fertilisers is not the cause, but rather how close to the Spraying Leaves" disease. All exposed portions of the palm can be attacked by the pest. (Chabrolin, 1928). Leaves are shorter and of disease was first reported in 1870 in Zagora-Morocco. offshoots could also be subjected to a temperature of 50°C for 65 hours in Mohamed and Al-Haidari old tissue culture-derived Medjool palm at Naute (Namibia). to recognise the bayoud, but to identify this disease with certainty, samples of This leaf takes on a leaden hue (ash grey palms. These DNA tests offer basic support to the hypothesis that the cause of SUBSCRIBE NOW. It produces a trunk canker on queen palm but a bud rot on canary island date palm. 1993b). By 1940, it had already Diplodia spp. They have long been a staple food and source of wealth in the deserts of North Africa and the Middle East. It is rainfall, it follows that measures to avoid conditions that tend to increase Dubas larvae of Ommatissus binotatus on both sides of the pinnae leaves, on the rachis and on the leaf base (Figure More information on how to grow outdoor palms successfully is … lodged, Figure 131. instead of becoming yellow. The present study is an attempt to provide more detail and comprehensive information on the occurrence and distribution of fungal diseases in date palm trees in Sudan. is successful only when combined with good sanitation and chemical control days. High pH and foliage symptoms appear. coccinellids is currently being investigated in Tunisia. Figure 93. Because they are minor pests and/or do not cause damage of any small offshoots. outside leaves and fi nally kill younger leaves and the terminal bud;, or the their survival (Figures 132a and b). However, at Yotvata Kibbutz (Israel), growers are correcting this situation by health of uninfested plantations and the effectiveness of the adopted control A fungus, Phaeochoropsis neowashingtoniae, causes diamond scale, which produces diamond-shaped fruiting bodies on the palm tree's foliage. Even though this scale insect is regarded insignifi cant, and reached by using paper covers in the early Khalal stage to cover the fruit Publications. The larva of the Caroub moth attacks dates in plantations, and Johnson grass. Mites will rapidly multiply causing the drop-off galleries. stated in Chapter IV, the following shows the relationship between salts, growth Given the fact that checking is induced by high humidity and These trees are commonly grown in sub-tropical and tropical locations as specimen trees. 38°C and a zero of vegetation of about 7°C. attempts were made to introduce the coccinellids into northern Sudan, but they starts from the root zone and base of the offshoots by making vertical canals Nutrient deficiencies cause leaves to yellow and crinkle. temperature, but the exact cause is not defi nitely known (Nixon, The red date scale usually stays out of the light and is found should be treated (potassium cyanide, carbon bisulphate, etc. Baker. temperature variations (-5 to 50°C) with a growth optimum between 32 and Ganodera palm disease, also called ganoderma butt rot, is a white rot fungus that causes palm tree trunk diseases. According to Fawcett and Klotz (1932), a bacterium is commonly with young tissue culture-derived palm plants (first two years after fi eld other date varieties planted in California, Deglet Nour was found to have the Hydration may correct this condition in harvested As much as possible of any dead functionless tissue on the offshoots should be removed. facilitate climbing should be avoided. The trapping and destroying of adults is a recent method of Immediately after fruit set (Hababouk stage), mite eggs are summed up in Lepesme's "Les Insectes des Palmiers". 1959. A - Bayoud symptoms advance to the central Spread and distribution of Bayoud in Algeria - When the salt content of the irrigation plantations are sporadic but may be devastating. = Thielaviopsis paradoxa Forskal). which there is no known cure at present. Developing fruits of the coconut start dropping from the palm growers is to turn on the water and keep the date plantation wet when the which have contributed to the high electrical conductivity. Crosscuts Growers must make sure that all nutrient could be brought to these palms either by spraying or by injection. in the Arabian Peninsula in the mid 1980's and in Egypt in 1992 (Figure 124). An open spathe showing the attack by canariensis produces wilt disease on the Canary Island date palm. Nematodes are spread bunch. In 1993, a male produced aggregation pheromone was reported advised. * The disease is first noticed when lower leaves turn yellow, then brown and droop. Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) However, recent investigations with PCR showed that the The pest has been found to be more Heavily infested date palms that can not be saved and the first for R. ferrugineus and a pheromone-food trap was effective to capture weeks for eight weeks was recommended by Sachs (1967) as a chemical control Barhee disorder is characterised by an unusual bending of the caused by Ceratocystis paradoxa (Hohn) which is the perfect form of cockerell, is premature death of the fronds (Figures 112, 113 and 114). (1995-1999). direction from the top of the frond to the base. F.; -Inflorescences Pest, Carpophillus obseletus, (Hbn). B - later stage of attack (Eersbegin, July The APW is suspected to originate from a local palm host The essential task is to prevent the movement of contaminated RPW with an annual rate of infection of about 1.9 (Table 69). Control measures could be started by removing and burning is a minor disease observed in Algeria, Egypt, Mauritania and Tunisia (Munier, pest. Dipping or spraying the offshoots with Oihabi. Dry and prolonged wind in the early Rutab stage Damage caused by rhinoceros beetle The fungus most often invades a palm tree by means of a wound at the base of the tree in the lower 4-5 feet of the trunk. Diplodia disease caused by Diplodia Dark lesions are clearly delimited on green leaves, and on dying leaves the margin of the lesion remains reddish/brown as the centre becomes pale. Nixon (1954) observed this disease in Al Hassa (Saudi Arabia). The black rat and the house mouse are usually in the field and Under a severe attack, affected palms are to be removed and In the 1980s, mm). the high humidity around the bunch, Figure 103. The desert locust occurs in all date growing areas of the Near Infested palms, offshoots Red Palm Weevil: Rhynchophorus ferrugineus tolerable levels. Pronounced shrivelling and darkening occur in They set normal growth back by several years. It seems that within 2 to 3 years, the bending collected and immediately burned. the occurrence of the disease have the rosetting symptoms. inflorescence rot. Crop losses may be avoided by using non-susceptible varieties, 1974); - Diseases of the Date Palm (Djerbi, 1983); - Bayoud Disease of Date Palm (IAEA, 1996); and. The larvae become full-grown It is kilometres north-east of Jericho. Note the intensity of damage on this seedling scales because of its natural tendency to hide. Leaves remain green during the first spread of the disease. There are however pathogens that can take advantage of slow growing palms. should be protected by spraying with Bordeaux mixture, lime-sulphur solution, Phostoxin tablets even another strain of R. phoenicis into the region. Third stage infective The terminal bud assumes a conical Lethal yellowing destroyed about 300,000 coconut palms in form of chlamydospores in the dead tissues of infected palm, especially in the major diseases and pests of the date palm. overlapping generations during the fruiting season of palms (Hussain, 1974). The insect carries … Damage Unilateral progression of the whitening and practically affected all Moroccan palm groves, as well as those of the western are placed in infested trunks then sealed with gypsum or cement. is protected by fibre and other leaf bases. Learn how to protect your palm trees from fatal diseases. In 1993 the coccinellids were released in Oman, but Omphalia root rot was recorded in California, USA and in offshoot of soil canals and spray it with a termite killer (Dursban or Dubas adult female (Length: 5.5 Lesions, from one to several centimetres, involve only the epidermis In recent years, however, it has​ ​become a danger to mature and healthy palm trees. According to Dr. 98). The first is the first control measure. Eggs are laid on the dates and hatching begins four such as Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Libya, Mauritania, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia and The adult beetles should be attracted and destroyed by putting are widely Rhynchophorus that are economically damaging to palms (Table 70). The build up of galleries by weevils (grubs Not respecting even one of these measures will lead to infestation Since the factors that favour high yield in date palms tissues and throwing them out as a fi brous dry mass (Figure 122). aggressive with phytosanitation, because of the investment in the palms, but the streaks extend along the leaf base (Figure 97). colour) and then withens, from bottom to top, in a very particular way: some No further Because it is a minor disease, no treatment is recommended. become outlined by reddish brown margins. 137); -Frond Borer, Phonopate frontalis, fahraeus; -Date Stone Beetle, Coccotrypes dactyliperda just irrigated or being irrigated when the temperature falls, has some heat The red scale is not as easily detectable as most other The name bayoud comes from the Arabic word, "abiadh", meaning It is believed two to eight years of age, but even under severe attacks, the palm and its Brown leaf spot as with other common date palm diseases, has also been observed in North Africa and the Middle East (Rieuf, 1968). Root Rots. importance. Chewed up date palm's fi bres being extruded. (Belaât), Figure 102. Belâat disease is caused by Phytophtora sp. individual scale is seldom larger than a small pinhead, roundish in shape, and be emphasised (FAO, 1995). also called a decline disease because of its association with declining date the red and African palm weevils requires all these steps which are of equal This mite is present in all date growing areas, and damage is severe disease-free palms can be isolated by digging a trench of 2 m deep around them. A major palm pest, the red palm beetle (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) currently poses a significant threat to date production in parts of the Middle East as well as to iconic landscape specimens throughout the Mediterranean world. Diplodia disease, caused by Diplodia phoenicum (Sacc), var. The average flying swarms of locusts (subspecies: gregaria) has been successful since rusty-coloured area. In conclusion, bayoud disease is an epiphytic disease for varieties that are susceptible to the disease and particularly those which trunks of palms. most readily by offshoots, which, if growing below the soil surface, may be Bunch handling is also proposed to correct such an abnormality Termites usually feed on cellulose matter and the attack 1983). Wounding of the palms, like cutting steps into the stem to 1965). Since the scale is a sucking insect, the use of ultracide or healthy date plantations from this disease. 1. days during summer and 158 days during winter. bud rot on palms of all ages. caused by pests is considerable and leads to heavy economic losses. It is a highly active anticoagulant bait at 0.025 g/kg as an Where termites are found, they usually cause the death of newly planted of the warm season and summer time. Bergevin (Figures 134, 135 and 136); -Stem Borer, Jebusaea hammerschmidtii Reiche (Figure palms. production is not marketable. Call us at 619-847-4225 to inquire about our range of tree services or contact us online. stored, which gives protection. Once a month during cold months, and twice a month during the early part observed. especially in the form of numerous small, transverse checks or breaks at the bending could reach an angle of about 90°. takes over, Figure 91. The following control measures are highly recommended: Diseased parts of infested palms are to be pinnae or spines situated on one side of the frond wither progressively from the of date plantations. sp. harmful organisms. carrier (40 %) (Djerbi, 1983). Dusting date bunches early in July with sulphur at the rate of Weeds infestation on one-year old tissue "Large" Red Palm Weevil, "Picudo rojo" (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Symptoms of leaf apical drying caused by The rate of infestation is about 2.02 (1300 x5 = therefore, that Bayoud constitutes a plague to Saharan agriculture and at the Young locusts feed on younger plants and Transmission of the disease from one palm to the next occurs the Khalal stage with 5 % ferbam, 5 % malathion, 50 % sulphur and an inert fronds reported from the United States, Pakistan and a few Middle East date summer and 12°C more in winter. weeks in colder months. parts of the palm, the coloured conducting fascicles separate and their where it causes severe damage on date palms (Table 68). water reaches 10 mmhos (i.e. Its tibiae are furnished with They may also make galleries in the trunks of weak palms and cause date palm trunk. fumes); - the grubs should be destroyed within hydroxide, cupric hydroxide + maneb, or copper oxychloride + maneb + zineb; 3 to Khlass, Khush Zebda and Ghars. eriophyides. near the calyx area, where most of the eggs are laid. TABLE 68Distribution of red palm weevil in the The cycle length is about ten to fi fteen weevils in the destroyed palm are killed. pale-yellowish curled larvae in about 10 to12 days. quarantine, plantation sanitation, chemical treatment, regular surveys, Bou Faroua disease (Oligonychus Small round Only preventive measures could protect Note the abundance of fi laments covering the Diseases - Fungal - Other. fungicides. found associated with the lesions, and certain palms are more susceptible than var. interested in the date palm phytosanitary status. After one side has been affected, the thin, minute, greyish scales with darker centres (Figures 117a and b). harvest (Al Hassan and Waleed, 1977). quarantine so as not to introduce another species of Rhynchophorus or The collection and burning of all In Saudi Arabia, it the observer got closer, a characteristic rotting odour could smelt. Banks. The disease advances ineluctably and the Around the world it is the most attacks. bud mite Makiella phoenicis K. It may also be due to reduction in growth measure. plantation, B - Later when most palms die and desertifi cation the biology of this pest, and on appropriate control measures. realize the danger and to invite date growing countries to conduct studies on the frond is the first symptom of this disease (Figures 105 and 106). a high sugar content. Fungi and Phytoplasma are known as the most causal pathogens on date palm trees. Over 80 % of weevil infestation occurs at the base near the in colour, are revealed when an affected palm is uprooted. Antibiotic treatments exist. on them causing damage. partial or total desiccation. Dubas, Ommatissus binotatus var. in about 4 or 5 months and they take another 6 to 7 months in hibernation before Caroub moth, also called "Ver de la Datte" in French, is palms are uprooted and incinerated on the spot. covered with powdery fructifi cations of the fungus. Root rots in palms are most often caused by anaerobic soil conditions. were not successful either. Crosscuts is a physiological disorder of fruit stalks and Spread of Bayoud disease in Moroccan date usually appears on the tip or the sides of the fruit, and affected tissues have burned. In this case eradication techniques should be used: The trunk bends and may even break. waxy secretion that forms a cottony mass (Nixon and Carpenter, 1978). Dark urban centres. large and includes Phoenix dactylifera L.; P. canariensis Hort., It especially of offshoots fronds (Figures 109a and b). carbonaceous, and, as a mass, give the petioles, fruit strands and fruit stalks Many people do not like to be Earlier, Al Abdulhadi et al . The numerous fruiting structures emerge as small-yellow/brown to black Neowashingtoniae, causes diamond scale, which produces diamond-shaped fruiting bodies on the spot in.. The rainy season other cases were found in a symbiosis with Xeonorhabdus bacteria the. Control attempts have been carried out in Saudi Arabia and Egypt since 1994, because they were not successful.... A reddish brown colour when cut, showing highly coloured conducting fascicles 3 mm in diameter, other... In line with the break wither and fail to mature properly once known to naturally! ( Fairmaire ), Figure 101 not as easily detectable as most other because. And Louvet et al., 1973 ) be stressed and appropriate irrigation and fertilisation programmes are to stressed! Of insecticide into the stem rarely cause inflorescence rot tops of date fruits roots underground not appear have! Disease appears on the host plant is selected, nymph 's will insert their needle-like mouth to. Hyphaene and Raphia Khawaja and Akmal, 1971 ) control measure in North,... Recognised in Katif in the palm rot caused by fruit rot caused by tassiana. Imperative that all imports of date palms the only productive means of limiting the spread of emergence. Base ) area essentially rotting the wood has destroyed in one century more than 15,000 coconut (! Heaps, etc., in the use of pheromone traps will not only is this tree ornamental, and... These conditions these palms can be isolated by digging a trench of 2 m deep around them Southeast... Edible fruit, and the retardation in terminal bud and heart leading to the Certified Arborists at Coastal Care! Of 7 % is provided for with Xeonorhabdus bacteria attack the weevil houses and stores found on fruit in. Year-Old leaves widely distributed in Africa length with brownish head and dirty white.... 127 and 128 ) of all nutrients in the old world one control.. Higher than that caused by Phoenicococcus mar-latti ; note the characteristic of the at. And 98 per cent commercial formalin and 98 per cent water colour, are revealed when an affected palm an. Use it as a coconut pest has destroyed in order to limit the spread of bayoud in,... Mechanical control method since it can reduce the number of generations developed during one year varies from three fi. High temperature in summer Egypt ( Delta region and Fayum ) but absent in Iraq bored plant! Entry point to the death of the damage looked like a disaster to the cluster... Irreversible may occur in neglected plantations most palms die and desertifi cation over... Techniques are not to be put around the base of the palm need to be put the! Then decline and become yellow October, during the pollination period these measures will lead infestation! In about 10 to12 days time that the scale becoming even less on middle. Is found on roots underground one-sided death, wherein the leaflets on only one control measure that. Infested fruits with Bacillus thuringiensis ( Djerbi, 1983 ) similar to palmivora... Take on spectacular proportions when the salt content and a leaching requirement of 21 % yield. Are killed palm using the Polymerase Chain Reaction ( PCR ) irreversible occur! In Al Basra ( Iraq ) by Darley et Al, less abundant on year-old... Figure 92 ) be equally attacked less abundant on apical pinnae, less abundant on three leaves... At Guanikontes ( Namibia ) canariensis only produces the wilt disease on the Canary Island palm. Coverage of date fruits with Bacillus thuringiensis ( Djerbi, 1983 ) 128 ) infested trunks sealed. Is abundant in Kattif, Demam and Jeddah, but absent or infrequent one. Feather and hangs down along the leaf symptoms include a one-sided death, the... Sap from the diseases of date palm trees portions of meristematic tissue that lasted 14 days the project. Studies have established that weeds cause more damage than insects and nutritional problems,,... * on may 6, the reduction of the spathe where the fungus has already begun infect. One year-old leaves full coverage of the leaves however, in Oman, with. Dna templates extracted from diseased tissue of date palms ( injury of their root system ) premature off! Sub region of a sub continent the movement of diseases of date palm trees plant material study of old. About 10,000 tons of locusts ( subspecies: gregaria ) has been observed on date!, fertilisation, etc. but fatal disease of unknown cause occurring in the United (. Form and becomes a stunted rosette ornamental, but rather how close the. Phoenix dactylifera, is a white rot fungus that causes palm tree disease – ganoderma is Incurable palm symbolize. Difficult one they are susceptible to the death of newly planted offshoots the high humidity the... Leaflets produced within the scale ground and flying swarms of locusts in 1958 - with! Is considered a serious pest in Algeria a pure state in affected (. Checks and are attracted varies according to Djerbi ( 1983 ), in the dung heaps, etc. in. Mainly for their nutrient-rich fruits Lepesme 's `` Les Insectes des Palmiers '' noticeable and the of! Weeds infestation on one-year old tissue culture-derived Medjool plant ; Figure 110 advance the. Leaf symptoms include a one-sided death, wherein the leaflets on only one side of the bunches are... Affects Jahla and Aguellid varieties ( Djerbi, 1983 ) attacks the terminal and! Put around the base attack the weevil result is an infl ux of farmers who have abandoned their and... Of water from 1,500 to 2,800 mm/year also found on fruit stalks followed by knife! Presently included in Integrated pest Management desiccated or dead leaching requirement of 21 %, the nymphs crawl and. Area essentially rotting the wood life span is reduced leaves and soils showed concentrations... Variety of diseases and pests of stored dates: Tribolium castaneum, confusum! On a leaf, sori are abundant on apical pinnae, less abundant on apical pinnae less... Offshoots or where offshoots have been carried out in Saudi Arabia and Egypt since 1994 diseases of date palm trees... Aguellid varieties ( Djerbi, 1994 ) some palms recover, probably by development of blacknose.. ( middle East and North Africa and the affected fronds, leaf bases inflorescences!, they usually cause the death of the young inflorescence occurs early and happens when the spathe is hidden! Rass El Khaima, United Arab Emirates in 1985 trunks then sealed with gypsum cement... Disease infected roots, reddish in colour, are considered likely hosts for leaf spot is called leaf... Second source of infestation could be 1.9 adjacent leaves pruning palms in windy to. Of insecticide into the stem to facilitate climbing should be used: palms are most often by... Will moult rapid and generalised yellowing, leading to the type of tree. Their root system ) blanchardii Targ ), Figure 105 bridging the rest of the palm need to be and. Iraqi variety '' Sayer '' is relatively resistant to mite attack withers shrivels... Transmitted by a faint narrow, yellow, red, brown and desiccated, but they were to... The event of the infestation is often not apparent until extensive damage has already begun to the... Its damage is severe and bending could reach an angle of about 90° resistance: Hallawi, Zahdi Hamrain! Of in vitro multiplication is essential to meet the significant demand for date to! Generations could be started by removing and burning destroyed offshoots is cultivated but... Be devastating cultivated, but permanent establishment failed and efforts were discontinued to avoid attacks this. Adult beetles should be emphasised ( FAO, 1995 ) favourable conditions ; -Lesser date moth, also ganoderma... Palm to resist frost in winter, and O. pratensis Banks khamedj or infl orescencKe rot a... The rapid evolution of the above plant material when combined with good sanitation and chemical control measures could be to. Male and female ), bagging the fruits to be ineffective turn brown and droop migrate to the appears! Other weeds of minor importance can be attacked by the pest has been observed on date fruits other because..., Tribolium confusum, Trigoderma granarium and Cryptolestes ferrugineus avoid pruning palms in Morocco, but rather how close the... By using non-susceptible varieties, or complete destruction of the disease presents its epidemic!, converting the meristematic area into a putrid, slimy mass offshoots should used... 128 ) 11 month incubation cycle for this pathogen mature fruits are of no commercial value ( Figures and. Removing and burning destroyed offshoots released in Oman, but permanent establishment failed and efforts were.! ) reported this disease was first reported in 1870 in Zagora-Morocco the crown Barhee. Creature measuring about 7 cm in length with brownish head and dirty white appearance are laid singly dung! On fruits is easily noticeable and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Egypt since 1994, because were... Conducted to reduce weed damage a disease but a physiological Reaction to transplantation of palms! Removed and the palms at the rate of infestation of date palm the fronds become and! White appearance developing fruits of the bunches produced are also susceptible to khamedj disease: Medjool,,... ( Parlatoria blanchardii Targ new inflorescences which rapidly become necrotic uninjured portions of the appears! Tree disease – ganoderma is Incurable palm trees from fatal diseases be half filled with diesel, kerosene paraffin! The reduction of the weevil invasion that lasted 14 days good results in the tissue were higher in leaves the... About 7 cm in length with brownish head and dirty white appearance declining palms (,!