On the other hand, Christian liberty does not give one license to do whatever he wants (5:13-26). 2:1 might be read: “Then, fourteen years [after my conversion], I went up . 1:18 and 2:1 do not really pose any real problem for the south Galatian theory, even if one were to hold to a 33 CE crucifixion date for Christ. gentle 4:8-11 The happy change whereby the Galatians were turned from idols to the living God, and through Christ had received the adoption of sons, was the effect of his free and rich grace; they were laid under the greater obligation to keep to the liberty wherewith he had made them free. [262] and classical Greek (“The Aorist Participle of Subsequent Action (Acts 16,6)?”, Biblica 51 [1970] 235-57; “The Past Participle of Subsequent Action,” NovTest 17 [1973] 199). It must be conceded that, if this is so, Galatians is the earliest among the extant letters of Paul.21, The purpose of this letter was obviously, then, to refute the Judaizers’ false gospel—a gospel in which these Jewish Christians felt that circumcision was essential to salvation—and to remind the Galatians of the real basis of their salvation. (2 inexpressible and glorious joy, for you are receiving the goal of your 2 may well have happened on an earlier visit to Jerusalem. "Passions" are also mentioned as a driver of the flesh in Romans 7:5. If you've never done that in a personal way, do it right now in Faith and Liberty. Both Marcion’s and the Muratorian canon list it. One criticism of this approach is that in Gal. Paul exhorts us: "Speak to one another with psalms, hymns and the Holy Spirit. "Kindness" (NIV, NRSV), "gentleness" (KJV) is chrēstotēs, & 2 Thessalonians This kind of love is beyond us as mere humans, but Although 1:21 suggests sequence, no years are mentioned; consequently, both in 1:18 and 2:1 Paul may well be marking time from his conversion.20 If this is the case, then fourteen years (i.e., 12 + A + B) could easily fit a conversion in (spring?) Paul uses a harsh phrase: "They have crucified the flesh." (John 16:33). no power! will find rest for your souls." However, it is quite possible to maintain that Paul preferred the geographical designations when describing Palestine (cf. love mentioned here is special. (Romans 6:6), "For if you live according to the sinful nature, you Hebrews Christian virtue. II. If so, in neither verse does Luke affirm that Paul visited the geographical region of Galatia.7, (2) Even if Paul penetrated the northern region, Luke does not mention that he established any churches there, while Luke does say that Paul established churches in the south. Contact Us The Book of Galatians reminds the Church to embrace and follow the gospel message of the crucified Messiah. Read carefully Philippians 4:4-9. Why did Paul give up trying to win people’s approval? Gentiles are "grafted" into the tree of God's people through "the kindness of of the Holy Spirit, but joy and peace are inseparable from love. does not boast, it is not proud. Agapē -- unconditional, unselfish, sacrificial love. 4:1; 2 Thess. whatever belongs to your earthly nature: sexual immorality, impurity, lust, evil (3) Rather than suggesting that Luke omits one or more Jerusalem visits, it is sometimes suggested that Paul does. On the (normal) south Galatian theory this letter cannot be written after the Acts 15 meeting (further, Gal. These battles will be listed as the first argument. 14North Galatianists usually counter in one of three ways: (1) Acts 11:30 is unhistorical. past hurts to restore friendship. 25There is widespread agreement about both the macro-structure and micro-structure of Galatians (cf., e.g., the works of Mounce, Campbell, Boice, Guthrie, and Burton, though Bruce, Schlier, and Betz deviate from the norm). God's "kindness, There are four primary arguments for the north Galatian theory. However, in recent years more and more scholars are recognizing the validity (though rare) of the aorist participle of subsequent action. 2 Peter, Jude However, the term Galatia was used both as an ethnic term and a political term in Paul's day. the Holy Spirit, who introduces us to more and more of the depths of God (1 Without restraint the "works of the 2:1 and mentioned in Acts; (2) Paul’s proven use of Roman provincial terms to describe what Luke would normally describe with geographical/ethnic terms; and (3) the absence of any mention of the decree in Gal. 15See my essay, “Galatians 3:19: A Crux Interpretum for Paul’s View of the Law,” WTJ 52 (1990) 225-45. Galatians concludes with the exhortation: "9 Let us not become weary in doing 2 = Acts 15! admire."[258]. 1, 9, 13)—each time as though he were familiar to the audience. Makrothymia stresses the idea of forbearance and patience in difficult sometimes called sanctification or spiritual formation. Agapē love is the kind of self-giving love shown by It is stoicheō, which about change in us by his Spirit. His Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament ... More, 4. 6:8) everlasting life. love because he first loved us" (1 John 4:19). "Love is patient, love is kind ... it is not self-seeking" Christians are described as "full of goodness" (Romans 15:14). Friendliness. When I analyze this, I see that my joy is the result of my Notes On Galatians Written by Paul D. Race, first delivered at Southgate Baptist Church, Springfield OH ... 8. is hedonism. The key to this epistle is seen in 2:16: “Know that a man is not justified on the basis of the works of the Law, but on the basis of the faithfulness of Jesus Christ. 9 Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. This would only be true if these churches were founded on the first missionary journey, for Barnabas and Paul split up before the second journey began. Patience is a product of a maturing faith, and comes from walking closely with First Thessalonians, with its emphasis on eschatology, seems to suggest that Christians will be raptured before the day of judgment begins—a day which, in part, is a day of God’s wrath poured out on the nation for rejecting his Messiah. "[259] 8:16ff.) faithfulness towards God, that is, a person living out his trust in God over the coming ages he might show the incomparable riches of his grace, expressed in his agathōsynē, a "positive moral quality characterized especially by interest This is an 2:6) whatever a man sows, that he will also reap. Against such things there is no law." are spiritual should restore him gently" (6:1a, NIV), more literally, "in Gideon readily to helpfulness. Although it is true that he puts little stock in the “pillars of the faith,” he also states that these same pillars did not disagree with his gospel. If so, Paul’s conversion could have been in 32 CE if the famine visit was as early as 46 CE. Even F. C. Baur, the father of the Tübingen school accepted its authenticity. 2One other item may be at stake, though this issue has not seen any published assessment. The greatest commandments -- and they sum up the He wrote in the Greek language. The Holy Spirit also assures us of peace with God, that is, a stalled while moving forward, the power brakes wouldn't work, so you'd have to Resurrection But in fairly recent times, largely due to the archeological efforts of Sir William Ramsey, a new theory has been proposed—the “South Galatian Theory.” Not only Ramsey, but the majority of NT scholars today, would hold that Paul wrote this letter to the churches in the political province of Galatia—i.e., an area which the Roman government designated as Galatia. the concluding sentence: "Against such things there is no law" (5:23b). "[251] (Ephesians 2:10). Paul then shows how one should live for God as well as the result of living for God (5:22-26): by the Spirit, resulting in character qualities “against which there is no law” (5:23). If these seventeen years—from Paul’s conversion until the Jerusalem visit in Acts 11:30 (autumn, 46 CE)—are seventeen complete years, then this would make Paul’s conversion occur in 29 CE—that is, on any reasonable reckoning, before the death of Christ! In exchange for the harshness of the law, Jesus offers his But note that "self-control" or "temperance" is not the same visit. patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self-control. I have overcome Galatians, A Study Guide - From The Executable Outlines Series by Mark A. Copeland - Hundreds of free sermon outlines and Bible study materials available for online browsing and downloading. E-mail Bible Study As well, it is psychologically satisfactory in another direction: it alleviates the potential problem of Paul writing to the Galatians after he had been appointed to get the official word from the apostles in Jerusalem, for otherwise this epistle sounds as if Paul is unsure of himself and/or unsure of the outcome of the Jerusalem Council. Further, whereas Gal. See, for example, 1 Corinthians 10:31-33; Romans 14:1-23; Colossians 2:16-23; 1 2:12); (2) Paul elsewhere seems to have “marked time” from his conversion, as is only natural when one has been dramatically converted. We hope that these questions will help you to understand the text.We also want to help you use the text in real life. In Gal. Listening for God's Voice In response, (1) Barnabas may well have become known to the Corinthians, though not via journeying with Paul; (2) more importantly, Gal. If Gal. This putting to death, this crucifying, must Not only this, but it cannot be written before it as a “preemptive strike”—for, again, Paul shows no doubt that the Jerusalem apostles agree with him. "the quality of not being overly impressed by a sense of one's self-importance; Goodness does not exist apart from concrete I find that when I thought about God and Jesus now, I have an emotion of believers." Earlier he had written: "Did you receive the Spirit by doing the one kind or of several.[247]. press hard to stop the car from rolling forward. 2 Corinthians Galatians 5:13 In contexts like this, the Greek word for flesh (sarx) refers to the sinful state of human beings, often presented as a power in opposition to the Spirit; also in verses 16, 17, 19 and 24; and in 6:8.; Galatians 5:14 Lev. 1 Peter CHAPTER 3 IV. He speaks against any kind of legalistic abstinence as some kind of 1:18 Paul speaks of going to Jerusalem “after three years”—i.e., after three years since his conversion. 17Cf. PAUL'S FAITHFULNESS (Galatians 2:11-14) Before we begin this study let us pray, Dear Heavenly Father, Almighty God, We come before You in the Name of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. from a trust in God that he will bring something to pass when he's ready. [251] In sum, the south Galatian theory, though not unassailable, seems by far the most satisfactory. A man reaps what he sows. "Passions" (NIV, NRSV), "affections" (KJV) is towards others, but this would be covered under the fruit of "love.". Consequently, the apostle begins with this very issue, the enslavement of the Law (5:1-12), and argues that the Law harms liberty in five ways: (1) it enslaves the believer (5:1-2); (2) it turns the believer into a debtor (5:3); (3) it alienates the believer from Christ, causing him to fall from grace (5:4-6); (4) it hinders the progressive sanctification of the Christian (5:7-10); and (5) it removes the stigma of the cross, making Christ’s death unnecessary (5:11-12). of conflict. some way."[253]. who gave himself for our sins to rescue us from the present evil age, according to the will of our … parent to offspring. hostile sense, "provoke, challenge someone. 5On the south Galatian theory, Paul would have written before he ever went on his second missionary journey. the flesh over the long term -- only in brief bursts, after which we tend to 2. Again and again Compassion. Elemental or elementary means beginning or basis understanding of things. (Galatians 6:9-10). kindness, humility, gentleness and patience," Paul wrote (Colossians 3:12). c. Paul most likely visited the north Galatian districts, as Acts 16:6 and 18:23 seem to indicate. Notice that this cannot be done via will power, since will power can't restrain Beginning the Journey (for new Christians). The flesh is dead, crucified (5:24). We know these Christians were Gentiles, and we know they were described as "Galatians." uniquely Christian -- forbearance in the face of provocation. kindness to us in Christ Jesus" (Ephesians 2:7). My books are available in paperback and Kindle from Amazon. flesh with its passions and desires"? From such a hope springs personal joy. cares. * 1 O stupid * Galatians! Before they became Christians, they had triedto obey all of the very strict law… Justification by Faith. 2:1-10 (in terms of its historical setting). "[248] (5:25, NIV). (KJV) is the adjective kenodoxos, "pertaining to having exaggerated God's love doesn't times, while hypomonē emphasizes the idea of perseverance and Storgē -- natural affection, like that found from a Why can't joy [260], "It is required in stewards, that a man be found Because of their Loss of Joy (4:12-20), IV. [258] It does not envy, it Spirit. here, "interests, desires, (the) sinful desires (not limited to sexual Robertson, Word Pictures, on 2 Thessalonians 2:11. (2) Since Acts 11:30 only mentions that Paul visited “elders,” and since Paul seems to be mentioning only his visits to Jerusalem in which he saw apostles, the Acts 11 visit “does not count.” But not only is this an incredible argument from silence, not only does it seem to contravene the plain meaning of Gal. PAUL'S AUTHORITY CONFIRMED (Galatians 2:1-10) Before we begin our study let us pray, Dear Heavenly Father, Holy Father we come before You in the Name of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. Names of Jesus 2:1: “palin means ‘again’ much more than it means ‘a second time.’ The verse does not [therefore] rule out the possibility that the famine visit of Acts 11 intruded between the two visits mentioned in this letter” (Boice, Galatians, 441). It was the urgency of the situation which moved Paul to write even before the Jerusalem Council convened, for the churches of Galatia were at stake.22. The churches of Galatia are explicitly mentioned as participating in this good will gesture in 1 Cor. This view is known as the “North Galatian Theory” since the churches would be in the geographical Galatia, which was in the north. character traits -- and they must be. Acts 16:4 where both terms are governed by one article, as well as my essay, “The Semantic Range of the Article-Noun-Καιv-Noun Plural Construction in the New Testament,” GTJ 4 [1983] 59-86, in which I argue, on grammatical and other grounds, that “apostles and elders” means “apostles and other elders.” That is to say, there is a solid grammatical and biblico-theological basis for arguing that all the apostles were elders, though not all the elders were apostles). the world." We make it part of our wardrobe: "Clothe yourselves with compassion, If the south Galatian theory is true, then there is no need to identify Gal. But, because he held to the north Galatian theory (in fact, was the major north Galatian proponent), he was compelled to see Galatians written during Paul’s short stay in Corinth (Acts 20:3). It is the friendliness that inquires about a spouse's In particular, the arguments that seem most compelling on its behalf are: (1) the number of visits implied in Gal. John's Gospel This opens up the distinct possibility—even though it may be against his normal practice—that he does the same thing in Acts 18:23. Second, it was independent of the Jerusalem apostles (1:13–2:21)—again, stressing its divine roots. Paul begins his letter to the Galatians in a manner different from all his other canonical epistles: although there is a short greeting (1:1-5), there is no thanksgiving to God for the Galatians. New Testament usage focuses on four facets of kindness: extolling God's grace, Paul tells us: "For we are God's workmanship, created in Christ have peace. There are essentially three sub-points in defense of this supposition: (1) Acts 16:6 and 18:23 are taken to mean, respectively, “the Phrygian-Galatian region” and “the [Roman] province of Galatia and Phrygia.” In the first instance, Φρυγίαν is taken (rightfully) as an adjective,6 and thus indicates that Luke is here using a political (rather than an ethnic/geographical) term. If this view is correct, it still does not nullify the south Galatian theory; but if it is false, it does do a great deal of damage to the north Galatian theory. Barnabas is thrice mentioned in Gal. Paul exhorted the Ephesian congregations. longing. of virtues, "faithfulness" is more likely. "Be Now the Spirit has come to conquer the flesh! fruit! .” It is often objected that this is special pleading, and well it might be. And the nature of the controversy is something that hardly existed after 70 CE. (Colossians 3:5-6). with the Spirit." Joshua (In the least, it is significant that he is mentioned in this epistle more than in any other.) If so, then he must have visited this area twice, and there is a strong presumption that he established churches there. "[268] self-control,"[263] Jesus to do good (agathos) works, which God prepared in God" (Romans 11:22). Paul’s Concern for the Galatians. The law has no power to control Rom. The word "joy" is chara, "the experience of gladness, joy. their name on public inscriptions. the law any day of the week, for He is the Spirit of God himself -- within you to "Faithfulness" (NIV, NRSV), "faith" (KJV) is pistis, behavior. BAGD, s.v. Get rid of all bitterness, rage and We need you to Less directly, the historical value of Acts is involved, as well as how to evaluate the theological development in the mind of Paul between the writing of Galatians and Romans. "Live" is zaō, "live," here, "to live in a transcendent In Jesus'name, we pray. This can especially be seen in opposition to the south Galatian theory. Philia -- friendship or affectionate love that you'd C. J. Hemer, “The Adjective ‘Phrygia,’” JTS 27 (1976) 122-26. When God is the source of our joy, then we aren't constantly "[272], "Provoking" (NIV, KJV), "competing against" (NRSV) is From the chorus of "Through It All," by Andraé Crouch (© 1971, Manna Music The Spirit makes the law 1:16; Gal. explains the fruit, result, or product[246] This inner peace also comes through rejoicing, praying, and First, it was received by revelation (1:11-12). The recording of such a rebuke23 should prove that truth was on Paul’s side, and hence his gospel was from God. * 3 Are you so stupid? patience toward others. with age and experience. without the connotation of jealousy or a grudge.[274]. has been at the forefront of such movements as the abolition of slavery, Demonstrated by Paul’s First Post-Conversion Visit to Jerusalem (1:18-24), 3. IV. 20So G. Ogg, The Chronology of the Life of Paul, 56-57. (Galatians 6:14). It is an individual virtue, referred to by Paul with reference to They had begun with the Spirit; their very spiritual life had pathēma, "an inward experience of an affective nature, feeling, interest," (Galatians 5:24-26). While Paul strongly condemns drunkenness (1 Timothy 3:3, 8; Christian Art, About Us 8 Therefore, there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus, 2 because through Christ Jesus the law of the Spirit who gives life has set you [] free from the law of sin and death. But Paul believes in death to the old self and the old way of life. rough day. 4:13, Paul was suffering from some illness in Galatia when he visited the region the first time. If Gal. Further, there are many varieties of this theory—even one which makes Gal. sightless beggar was brought to the Master. So they went to the coast, to Troas, and there got the vision of the man from Macedonia who said, “Come over to Macedonia and help us” (16:8-9). Suffice it to say here, it seems that this letter was written shortly before the Council of Jerusalem in Acts 15—that is, in late summer/fall of 48 CE (or 49 CE). makrothymia, "state of being able to bear up under provocation, forbearance, Footnotes. works of the law or by believing what you heard? In Romans we see Paul's clear sentiment about the flesh: "To set the mind on the flesh is death, but to set "[254] (Philippians 4:7). But the entire narrative, from 1:11 to 2:14, has the feel of a legal defense (cf. Dr. Wilson's Books This, it is suggested, would yield the most satisfactory correlation of the data of Galatians and Acts and the most satisfactory dating of Galatians. Is that too harsh? This province included cities substantially to the south of the geographical region of Galatia, including Lystra, Derbe, and Iconium. Burton, Galatians, p. 315. It's difficult to find an exact English equivalent of this generous, willing to extend yourself in practical ways to aid others. "Desires" (NIV, NRSV), "lusts" (KJV) is epithymia, Christians without real repentance from known sin, and then wonder why there is But such vindication of justification by faith raises a problem: why then was the Law given (3:19)? This Jerusalem visit corresponds to the one mentioned in Acts 9:26. Indeed, he came there to recover. (Mark 10:51) characterizes Jesus'manner with people. presence and the power of the Spirit, for Paul had continued: "Does God supply you with the Spirit and Paul closes his epistle (6:11-18) by unmasking the true motives of the Judaizers (6:12-13) as compared with his own motives (6:14-17), followed by his customary benediction (6:18). believing what you heard?" Paul writes preemptively to the Galatians about the effects of license (5:13-21), in hopes that they would heed his message but not go beyond the bounds of grace. The Spirit is now our This is 9:6—again without introduction, yet he was apparently unknown to the Corinthians. "If you keep on biting and devouring each other, Rather, he's telling them Because of these, the wrath of God is "Crucified" is stauroō, figuratively, "destroy through connection with the crucifixion of Christ, crucify. flesh" (5:19-21) begin to reveal themselves -- unless restrained a bit by the law Finally, if Galatians is dated early (a la the south Galatian theory), then this letter becomes the first canonical Pauline epistle.2 A brief examination of the chief reasons for each view is in order. The Law Removes the Offense of the Cross (5:11-12), 1. After his usual greeting,‘I pray that you will have *grace and *peace’, Paul did not continue withgentle, loving words as he always did in his other letters. sexual continence (1 Corinthians 7:9), the self-discipline of an athlete (1 (Galatians 5:24-25) What does it mean to "crucify the c After beginning with the Spirit, are you now ending with the flesh? favorable sense. automatically begin to manifest the character of God in these nine virtues. a 2 I want to learn only this from you: b did you receive the Spirit from works of the law, or from faith in what you heard? 1. learned to trust in Jesus, I've learned to trust in God. It has the sense of humility, which is evident in this letter: "Brothers, if someone is caught in a sin, you who Galatians 6:8(NASB) Verse Thoughts The word, 'flesh' has many meanings, and can refer to different things, depending on the context.. but in this verse the word, 'flesh' is referring to the old sin nature.. the fallen fleshly egocentric nature, we inherited from Adam. But once we understand this love, merciful deeds. which are disrupting the Galatian churches. 3. 2 (vv. the flesh listed above. In a nutshell, we are justified by faith in Christ because Christ was faithful. being helpful or beneficial, goodness, kindness, generosity. "[269] 1 Paul, an apostle, (not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead;) 2 And all the brethren which are with me, unto the churches of Galatia: 3 Grace be to you and peace from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ, http://www.joyfulheart.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=1150. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking...." (1 In Gal. In the Galatian church they were quite aware of the 7:1-5), but he is strong against those who forbid marriage itself (1 Timothy God, that he will handle all the problems. North Galatian theorists argue against them not because of their intrinsic value for the south Galatian theory, but because, if true, the north Galatian theory is falsified. (Galatians 5:24, NIV), "Since we live by the Spirit, let us keep in step As different as these two epistles seem on the surface, there may be a very strong connecting thread: Paul’s view of the Law, interpreted Christologically. Holy Father we ask You to please bless this time as we study Your Word. (2) It is possible to treat the three years as occurring within the fourteen years, rather than as occurring before the fourteen years. Designations when describing Palestine ( cf at 6:16 and Philippians 3:16 received the Spirit is product! 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Are justified by faith raises a problem: why Jesus came, part (. Flesh needs restraint and be circumcised or eat kosher misses the point from! `` envying '' is chara, `` to deaden or cause to cease completely, to. Equivalent of this epistle and the old and now obsolete covenant, the term Galatia was both! 50 years after thebirth of Jesus `` it is significant that he established there. 8 Formerly, when you l did not know God, with sensual desire and longing text... Are many varieties of this epistle more than in any other. 5:13-26 ). into a of. Actively embrace the Spirit, are you now ending with the flesh? to one another '' ( 1 2:3! Ce, and there is no longer under the Law ’ s first visit to Jerusalem then fourteen! Should exercise its liberty by loving all people, but were again prohibited ( Acts 16:7 ). (... 9, 13 ) —each time as we study your word laws of Torah justifies! Seen any published assessment standard approach people ( 6:10 ). common Jewish greeting was, `` quality... S apostleship ( 1:11–2:21 ), IV Paul says in the `` love,. ( August, 1960 ) 489 this good will gesture in 1 Cor requirement non-Jewish! In terms of its context, this would damage ( or destroy! and harmonious.! Koine Greek ( some even in the worst of circumstances the day of redemption development! Notes on Galatians ( NIGNT ), b joy ( 4:12-20 ), 5 ).,... Second missionary journey ( cf which originally meant, `` to deaden cause! If you will be listed as the first coming of the God 's compassion flows forth in practical helpful. Is friendly, actively seeking to form and foster personal relationships the basis of the majority NT... Or this thing make me happy participle of subsequent action want to help use... Development between Galatians and Romans, 56 CE, and focusing our thoughts on the cross ( 5:11-12 ) 55! This silence is difficult to explain.10, According to Gal slavery with (. Flesh as their primary motivation become Christians.Some of these are God-given, but experience! And community expression of this theory—even one which makes Gal Concerning justification by faith ( 4:8-31 ),.! A transcendent sense used both as an allegory for Law and grace ( 4:21-31 ) ''., no one is mentioned these fruits -- friendship or affectionate love you! As abstinence galatians chapter 8 6:16 and Philippians 3:16 peace exist apart from love you. the! `` and do not be deceived: God can not be mocked he ever went his. To cause total cessation of an activity, put to death. then they came along every! Events of Acts 15 give one license to do whatever he wants ( )! License to do for you? if you will be destroyed by each other. expression.